Neuropathy is debilitating for many people and many lose hope as the medications to treat it are shown to have drastic side effects, and some people don’t get relief from the medications. 

The pain of neuropathy is caused by damaged and dying nerve-endings.  The following research shows the effectiveness on stem cells and neurotrophic (nerve cell regrowth) factors!

Enhanced neuro-therapeutic potential of Wharton’s Jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells in comparison with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells culture.  

  • In order to determine the variable responses to MSCs therapy, the present study examines and compares the adhesive stromal cells from immature perinatal tissues—umbilical cord Wharton’s Jelly (WJ-MSC) and from adult, healthy donors of bone marrow origin (BM-MSC).
    • WJ-MSC represent an example of immature type of “pre-MSC” population with exceptionally high commitment to neural differentiation.
    • WJ-MSC exhibit a higher proliferation rate, a greater expansion capability and enhanced neurotrophic factors expression in comparison to BM-MSC.
    • Hypoxia conditions accelerated WJ cells growth together with a regression of cell differentiation/maturation.
    • The cultures of hypo-oxygenated BM-MSC do not express any of the phenomena mentioned above, except for the moderate stimulation of cell growth.

Human umbilical cord Wharton’s Jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiation into nerve-like cells. 

  • CONCLUSIONS:MSCs could be isolated from human umbilical cord Wharton’s Jelly. They were capable of differentiating into nerve-like cells using Salvia miltiorrhiza or beta-mercaptoethanol. The induced MSCs not only underwent morphologic changes, but also expressed the neuron-related genes and neuronal cell markers. They may represent an alternative source of stem cells for central nervous system cell transplantation

Perspectives of employing mesenchymal stem cells from the Wharton’s jelly of the umbilical cord for peripheral nerve repair.  

  • Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from Wharton’s jelly present high plasticity and low immunogenicity, turning them into a desirable form of cell therapy for the injured nervous system. Their isolation, expansion, and characterization have been performed from cryopreserved umbilical cord tissue. The MSCs from Wharton’s jelly delivered through tested biomaterials should be regarded a potentially valuable tool to improve clinical outcome especially after trauma to sensory nerves. In addition, these cells represent a noncontroversial source of primitive mesenchymal progenitor cells, which can be harvested after birth, cryogenically stored, thawed, and expanded for therapeutic uses.

Stem Cell Technology for Neurodegenerative Diseases

  • Cellular therapies offer great promise for the treatment of these diseases, and research progress to date supports the utilization of stem cells to offer cellular replacement and/or provide environmental enrichment to attenuate neurodegeneration. In diseases where specific subpopulations of cells or widespread neuronal loss are present, cellular replacement may reproduce or stabilize neuronal networks. In addition, environmental enrichment may provide neurotrophic support to remaining cells or prevent the production or accumulation of toxic factors that harm neurons. In many cases, cellular therapies provide beneficial effects through both mechanisms.

Human mesenchymal stem cells improve the neurodegeneration of femoral nerve in a diabetic foot ulceration rats

  • These data suggested that hMSCs-UC-treatment partially reverse the neuronal degeneration and nerve function of FN, which might be contributed by the upregulation of NGF with dramatic angiogenesis in FN-innervated gastrocnemius, consequently reversing neuronal structure and function, preventing or curing foot ulceration.

Stem Cells for the Treatment of Neuropathic Pain

  • Stem cell transplantation can effectively relieve neuropathic pain under different pathological conditions. However, it is interesting to point out that peripheral neuropathic pain seems to be more responsive to stem cell therapy than SCI (Spinal Cord Injury) induced chronic pain. Moreover, stem cell treatment does not always exert positive results in SCI- induced chronic pain (e.g. aggravating pain above the lesion spinal cord segment).

Mesenchymal stem cells to treat diabetic neuropathy: a long and strenuous way from bench to the clinic

  • CONCLUSION DN (Diabetic Neuropathy) frequently leads to foot ulcers and ultimately limb amputations without effective clinical therapy. DN is characterized by reduced  vascularity in the peripheral nerves and deficiency in angiogenic and neurotrophic factors. Only delivering neurotrophic or angio-genic factors for treatment in the form of protein or gene therapy is very modest if not ineffective. MSCs have been highlighted as a new emerging regenerative therapy owing to their multipotency for DN.MSCs reverse manifestations of DN, repair tissue, and anti-hyperglycemia. MSCs also paracrinely secrete neurotrophic factors, angio-genic factors, cytokines, and immunomodulatory substances to ameliorate DN.

Mesenchymal Stem Cells as a Prospective Therapy for the Diabetic Foot

  • In summary, MSC transplantation is a new technology that can be used to treat the diabetic foot and is a well-studied topic in the field of angiogenesis. MSCs have high proliferative and self-renewal capabilities in addition to the ability to differentiate into multiple types of cells, including VECs, SMCs, and astrocytes and, to a lesser extent, oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells, after transplantation. The transplanted stem cells regulate the immune system by influencing the immune responses of T cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells, and they participate in diabetic wound healing. Via both endocrine and paracrine effects and the secretion of angiogenic factors, cytokines and neurotrophic factors that promote angiogenesis, the blood flow in the local tissue recovers, and neurological lesions are healed. MEX also participate in the wound healing process via the effects of the mRNA, miRNA, and protein molecules which they contain (Figures (Figures1,1 ,2,2, and  and3).3). Although certain researchers argue that transplanted MSCs can also recover islet β cell dysfunction and maintain balanced blood glucose levels, these phenomena seem to lack supporting evidence [172]. In animals with diabetic feet and in clinical trials, the transplantation of MSCs has led to positive results, and, in short-term follow-ups, there have been no significant adverse reactions or serious complications. The MSC transplantation technique has therefore been successfully developed, and it provides a basis for clinical applications involving stem cell transplantation to treat the diabetic foot.

Effect of subcutaneous treatment with human umbilical cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells on peripheral neuropathic pain in rats

  • We demonstrated that hUCB-MSCs showed a significant improvement in animal models for neuropathic pain after intraplantar, subcutaneous transplantation. It seems that hUCB-MSCs transplantation cause secretion of TIMP-2, which inhibits MMP 2 activation that otherwise produces neuropathic pain symptoms, via IL-βcleavage and activation of p-ERK in astrocytes [21]. This finding was indirectly confirmed by expression of c-fos and CGRP, which are generally used as stress markers p-ERK, which is upstream of c-fos and CGRP. Among three animal models for neuropathic pain, spinal cord cells positive for c-fos, CGRP, p-ERK, p-p 38, MMP-9 and MMP 2 were significantly decreased in only CCI model of hUCB-MSCs-grafted rats. The CCI model has been extensively used for many neuropathic studies because it closely mimics the clinical nerve injury conditions and pain nature such as complex regional pain syndrome type 2

Perspectives of employing mesenchymal stem cells from the Wharton’s jelly of the umbilical cord for peripheral nerve repair.

  • Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from Wharton’s jelly present high plasticity and low immunogenicity, turning them into a desirable form of cell therapy for the injured nervous system. Their isolation, expansion, and characterization have been performed from cryopreserved umbilical cord tissue.
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