ORTHOPEDIC CONDITIONS / SPORTS INJURIES
Arthritis is crippling millions of Americans. Still others who are not crippled with are arthritis and wish to remain highly active are frustrated by injuries that take a long time to heal and remain painful afterward.
This section reveals the effect of stem cells on patients with these conditions.
Characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells derived from Wharton’s jelly of human umbilical cord and for fabrication of non-scaffold tissue-engineered cartilage.
- The human WMSCs express characteristics of pre-chondrocytes, low immunogenicity and are easy to be obtained with higher purity because there have no hematopoietic cells in Wharton’s jelly, so it may be a new seed cells more suitable for constructing tissue-engineered cartilage.
Mesenchymal stem cells in regenerative medicine: Focus on articular cartilage and intervertebral disc regeneration
- In addition, WJSCs has several advantages that make them an attractive choice for use in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. WJSCs (i) are a relatively young cell type compared to most other MSCs, (ii) have no ethical concerns unlike ESCs, (iii) can be harvested painlessly unlike bone-marrow MSCs, (iv) share few embryonic features, (v) have high cell proliferation, (vi) have wide differentiation potential, (vii) are hypo-immunogenic and (viii) are non-tumorigenic , , , , , , . Developmentally, the umbilical cord and its contents are embryonic in nature as it arises from the epiblast, which also give rise to the three primordial germ layers, the amnion and the allantois. Therefore, WJSCs come to occupy an intermediate position between the most versatile pluripotent ESCs/iPSCs and adult tissue specific MSCs, which might explain the presence of some embryonic stem features and increased stemness.
- WJSCs, by their inherent nature have high hyaluronic acid, sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and collagen expression , which to some extent reflect native cartilage tissue. Moreover, uses of WJSCs following their differentiation into multiple cell types as reported by many different research groups, with some progressing on to clinical trials is encouraging , ,  and justify the use of WJSCs in cartilage regeneration procedures.
Regeneration of Full‐Thickness Rotator Cuff Tendon Tear After Ultrasound‐Guided Injection With Umbilical Cord Blood‐Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Rabbit Model
- Conclusion UCB‐derived MSC injection under ultrasound guidance without surgical repair or bioscaffold resulted in the partial healing of full‐thickness rotator cuff tendon tears in a rabbit model. Histology revealed that UCB‐derived MSCs induced regeneration of rotator cuff tendon tears and that the regenerated tissue was predominantly composed of type I collagens. In addition, motion analysis showed better walking capacity after MSC injection than HA or normal saline injection. These results suggest that ultrasound‐guided UCB‐derived MSC injection may be a useful conservative treatment for full‐thickness rotator cuff tendon tear repair.
Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells reduce monosodium iodoacetate-induced apoptosis in cartilage
- Based on the present findings, we conclude that HUCMSCs can fulfill MSC characteristics with mesoderm differentiation capability. HUCMSCs can assist MIA-treated mice in regeneration of hyaline cartilage and/or repair of cartilage damage and in ameliorating cartilage apoptosis. These effects can be associated with motor behavioral improvement. Thus, HUCMSCs may be a feasible source for stem cell treatment for OA cartilage repair.
Effects of insulin-like growth factor-induced Wharton jelly mesenchymal stem cells toward chondrogenesis in an osteoarthritis model.
- Effects of insulin-like growth factor-induced Wharton jelly mesenchymal stem cells toward chondrogenesis in an osteoarthritis model.
CONCLUSION: The IGF1-induced WJMSCs were capable to enhance chondrogenesis, indicated by increased expression of SOX9 and COL2 and decreased expression of ADAMTS1, ADAMTS5, MMP3, MMP1, and RANKL. These findings can be further used in the osteoarthritis treatment.
Effect of nicotine on the proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of the human Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells.
- Effect of nicotine on the proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of the human Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells. CONCLUSIONS: At the concentration used, nicotine had an adverse effect on the proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of hWJ-MSCs which was probably impaired through a α7 nAChR mediation
Human Wharton’s Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells Maintain the Expression of Key Immunomodulatory Molecules When Subjected to Osteogenic, Adipogenic and Chondrogenic Differentiation In Vitro: New Perspectives for Cellular Therapy
- Human Wharton’s Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells Maintain the Expression of Key Immunomodulatory Molecules When Subjected to Osteogenic, Adipogenic and Chondrogenic Differentiation In Vitro: New Perspectives for Cellular Therapy “This strongly suggests that also after the acquisition of a mature phenotype, WJ-MSCs-derived cells may maintain their immune privilege. This evidence, which deserves much work to be confirmed in vivo and in other MSCs populations, may provide a formal proof of the good results globally achieved with WJMSCs as cellular therapy vehicle.”
Cartilage Repair in the Knee Using Umbilical Cord Wharton’s Jelly–Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Embedded Onto Collagen Scaffolding and Implanted Under Dry Arthroscopy
- Cartilage Repair in the Knee Using Umbilical Cord Wharton’s Jelly–Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Embedded Onto Collagen Scaffolding and Implanted Under Dry Arthroscop
- Although WJ-MSCs are allogeneically sourced, they are considered weakly immunogenic or non-immunogenic because of the low expression of HLA class I. The ability of these cells to promote chondrogenesis, without eliciting an immunogenic response, makes them an excellent candidate for providing cell-based cartilage repair in an off-the-shelf fashion. Moreover, use of WJ-MSCs for cartilage repair in older patients will address concerns related to MSC number and immunomodulatory capacity with autologous harvest in aging patients, making this technique a promising advancement in the treatment of cartilage injury for this demographic
Role of mesenchymal stem cells in osteoarthritis treatment
- Role of mesenchymal stem cells in osteoarthritis treatment
- Without an effective cure, OA remains a significant clinical burden on our elderly population. The advancement of regenerative medicine and innovative stem cell technology offers a unique opportunity to treat this disease. In this review, we examine OA and the likely resolution with MSCs. MSCs have been one of the highlights in stem cell research in recent years. Although the application of MSCs in joint repair is well established, it is particularly exciting about MSCs being used for OA treatment.
Mesenchymal stem cells for cartilage regeneration in osteoarthritis
- In summary, these studies show that MSCs can be employed successfully to treat mild to moderate OA through various ways. They provide alternative treatment options and treatment can start early during progression of OA. The traditional major surgeries used to treat late stages are expensive and come with risks. The less invasive techniques outlined in this minireview have revealed good outcomes, but the field merits further investigation. Superior outcome was evident with greater quantity of MSCs injected. Allogenic cells from healthy young donors can also be utilized. These findings have further empowered researchers to investigate the potentials of MSCs for tissue engineering and a number of clinical trials are now underway. Most of the emphasis on minimally invasive therapeutic alternatives including intraarticular injections of MSCs, aim to cut out cost and risks of major surgeries. Additional investigations are warranted to validate the safety and efficiency of different application before a standardized treatment regimen can be established.