UMBILICAL CORD / WHARTON’S JELLY


 

UMBILICAL CORD / WHARTON’S JELLY

Stem Cells can come from your body or they can come from tissues like “Wharton’s Jelly”, which is found in umbilical cords.  We source stem cells from umbilical cords from healthy-born babies.  These cords were donated by the mother, and the child has been monitored for one year to make sure there were no health issues of concern. 

The benefits of using Wharton’s Jelly is the young age of the stem cells therein.  As we age, our own stem cells are believed to be less active.  The following research shows the safety and effectiveness of young stem cells from Wharton’s Jelly. 


Immunosuppressive properties of mesenchymal stromal cells derived from amnion, placenta, Wharton’s jelly and umbilical cord.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23176558

  • CONCLUSION:
  • The results obtained from this study suggest that MSC from amnion, placenta, Wharton’s jelly and umbilical cord can therefore be potentially used for substituting BM-MSC in several therapeutic applications, including the treatment of GvHD.

Immune characterization of mesenchymal stem cells in human umbilical cord Wharton’s jelly and derived cartilage cells

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0008874912001220 

  • The hWJMSC has very low immunogenicity and good potential to tolerate rejection. Their intermediate state between adult and embryonic stem cells makes them an ideal candidate for reprogramming to the pluripotent status.

A comparison of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells for cartilage tissue engineering.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19260778

  • Therefore, it was concluded that hUCMSCs may be a desirable option for use as a mesenchymal cell source for fibrocartilage tissue engineering, based on abundant type I collagen and aggrecan production of hUCMSCs in a 3D matrix, although further investigation of signals that best promote type II collagen production of hUCMSCs is warranted for hyaline cartilage engineering.

Comparison of human mesenchymal stem cells derived from dental pulp, bone marrow, adipose tissue, and umbilical cord tissue by gene expression.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24145770

  • Comparison of human mesenchymal stem cells derived from dental pulp, bone marrow, adipose tissue, and umbilical cord tissue by gene expression.
  • All MSCs tested were phenotypically similar and of fibroblastoid morphology. DP-MSCs and UBC-MSCs were more proliferative than bone marrow BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs.

Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical analysis of multilineage differentiated human dental pulp- and umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21124001 

  • Our results demonstrate, at the biochemical and ultrastructural level, that DPSC display at least bilineage potential, whereas UCSC, which are developmentally more primitive cells, show trilineage potential. We emphasize that transmission electron microscopical analysis is useful to elucidate detailed structural information and provides indisputable evidence of differentiation. These findings highlight their potential therapeutic value for cell-based tissue engineering.

Endothelial differentiation of Wharton’s jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells in comparison with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19375653 

  • CONCLUSION: These results showed that UC-MSCs had higher endothelial differentiation potential than BM-MSCs. Therefore, UC-MSCs are more favorable choice than BM-MSCs for neovascularization of engineered tissues.

Feasibility, Safety, and Tolerance of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy for Obstructive Chronic Lung Allograft Dysfunction

https://stemcellsjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/sctm.17-0198 

  • Conclusion: The results of our study suggest it is safe and feasible to provide cell therapy with intravenous infusion of bone marrowderived MSCs to lung transplant recipients with moderate obstructive CLAD, warranting future studies to assess the effectiveness of this therapy for management of acute or chronic graft dysfunction.

Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells: a new era for stem cell therapy.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25622293 

  • The human umbilical cord is a promising source of mesenchymal stem cells (HUCMSCs). Unlike bone marrow stem cells, HUCMSCs have a painless collection procedure and faster self-renewal properties. Different derivation protocols may provide different amounts and populations of stem cells. Stem cell populations have also been reported in other compartments of the umbilical cord, such as the cord lining, perivascular tissue, and Wharton’s jelly. HUCMSCs are noncontroversial sources compared to embryonic stem cells. They can differentiate into the three germ layers that promote tissue repair and modulate immune responses and anticancer properties. Thus, they are attractive autologous or allogenic agents for the treatment of malignant and nonmalignant solid and soft cancers. HUCMCs also can be the feeder layer for embryonic stem cells or other pluripotent stem cells.

Comparative Characterization of Cells from the Various Compartments of the Human Umbilical Cord Shows that the Wharton’s Jelly Compartment Provides the Best Source of Clinically Utilizable Mesenchymal Stem Cells

https://neomatrixmedical.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/2015-Singapore-Mesenchymal-Stem-Cells-From-Umbilical-Cord-Tissue-Are-Best-in-Clinical-Applicatoins-2.pdf

  • Taken together, it appears that MSCs from the WJ are more superior than those from the PV, SA, AM and MC in terms of clinical utility and research value because (i) their isolation is simple, quick and easy to standardize, (i) they have lesser non-stem cell contaminants (iii) they are rich in stemness characteristics, (iv) they can be generated in large numbers with minimal manipulation, (v) they are proliferative and (vi) have broad and efficient differentiation potential.
    They will thus be stable and attractive candidates for research and future cell-based therapies when derived, propagated and characterized correctly. Our results show that when isolating MSCs from the UC, the WJ should be the preferred compartment, and a standardized method of derivation must be used so as to make meaningful comparisons of data between research groups.

Different populations and sources of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC): A comparison of adult and neonatal tissue-derived MSC

https://neomatrixmedical.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/Comparison-of-Adult-and-Neonatal-Tissue-MSCs_Hass_2011-copy.pdf

  • In contrast, the umbilical cord tissue or Wharton’s jelly is an excellent source for isolating MSC [103-105]. Source-related features of MSC might directly contribute to the diversity of opinions regarding the mechanisms (soluble factors versus cell-to-cell contact) of MSC-mediated immunomodulation

The umbilical cord matrix is a better source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) than the umbilical cord blood

https://neomatrixmedical.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/Umbilical-Cord-vs-Blood-MSC-source.Zeddou2010-copy.pdf

  • Conclusion According to the critical parameters of sample selection described in the literature, and using different culture media proposed to enhance the growth of MSC, in parallel with the use of different methods of cell isolation, we were not able to establish MSC cultures from more than one out of 15 UCB samples. Given the high frequency of MSC in UCM, we hypothesize that there may be MSC contamination while collecting cord blood. This may explain the rare described cases where MSC isolation from UCB has been possible. However, it could not be ascertained whether the collection method may have caused the disappearance of circulating MSC from the cord blood MNC compartment in favor of the endothelial/subendothelial layer of the UCM. Anyway, UCB can be excluded as a reliable source of MSC in favor of the richer and more reproducible source that is the UCM.

Umbilical Cord Tissue Offers the Greatest Number of Harvestable Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Research and Clinical Application: A Literature Review of Different Harvest Sites

https://neomatrixmedical.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/Umbilical-Cord-WJ-greatest-_-MSC.VANGSNESS2015-copy.pdf

  • Large variations in cell harvest yields remain for each major tissue site for MSCs as reported in the literature to date. Reviewed research supports the understanding that placental tissue provides the highest concentration of cells whereas adipose tissue offers the highest levels of autologous cells. Consequently, considerations must be made regarding the non-autologous nature of umbilical cord derived stem cells, as well as the increased post-harvest processing required for adipose-derived stem cells, for the purposes of research and clinical application.

Discarded Wharton’s Jelly of the Human Umbilical Cord: A Viable Source for Mesenchymal Stem Cells

https://neomatrixmedical.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/Umbilical-Cord-WJ-viable-MSC.Watson2015-copy.pdf

  • In particular, WJ is a predominantly good source of cells because MSCs in WJ (WJ-MSC) are maintained in a very early embryological phase and therefore have retained some of the primitive stemness properties. WJ-MSCs can easily differentiate into a plethora of cell types leading to a variety of applications. WJ-MCSs are still the ideal future for cell therapy; their properties of high proliferation capability and versatility to differentiate between three lineages allow them to lower immunogenicity and have the potential to treat an array of diseases and disorders

Umbilical Cord as Prospective Source for Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Therapy

https://neomatrixmedical.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/Umbilical-Cord-as-Prospective-Source-for-Mesenchymal-Stem-Cell-Based-Therapy-1.pdf

  • Conclusion The human umbilical cord is a source of MSCs that have Currently isolated and cultured umbilical cord MSCs are a promising storage object of the leading biobanks of the world, and the number of registered clinical trials on their use is currently growing.

Human Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Do Not Undergo Malignant Transformation during Long-Term Culturing in Serum-Free Medium

https://neomatrixmedical.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/Human-Umbilical-Cord-Derived-Mesenchymal-Stem-Cells-Do-Not-Undergo-Malignant-Tr.pdf

  • Results Flow cytometry analysis showed that very high expression was detected for CD105, CD73, and CD90 and very low expression for CD45, CD34, CD14, CD79a, and HLA-DR. MSCs could differentiate into osteocytes, chondrocytes, and adipocytes in vitro. There was no obvious chromosome elimination, displacement, or chromosomal imbalance as determined from the guidelines of the International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature. Telomerase activity was down-regulated significantly when the culture time was prolonged. Further, no tumors formed in rats injected with hUC-MSCs (P ) cultured in serum-free and in serum containing conditions. Conclusion Our data showed that hUC-MSCs met the International Society for Cellular Therapy sandards for conditions of long-term in vitro culturing at P . Since hUC-MSCs can be safely expanded in vitro and are not susceptible to malignant transformation in serum-free medium, these cells are suitable for cell therapy.

Comparative Analysis Of Bone Marrow and Wharton’s Jelly Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells

http://www.bloodjournal.org/content/122/21/1212?sso-checked=true

  • Taken together WJ-MSCs display decreased cellular senescence after extended in vitro culture, increased proliferative capacity and reduced potential to differentiate in vitro to adipocytes and osteocytes, as compared to BM-MSCs. The last two observations can be explained, at least partly, by the aberrant expression of Wnt-signaling molecules in WJ-MSCs. The emerging role of Wnt-signaling pathway in WJ-MSC biology is currently under investigation.

Mesenchymal stem cells derived from Wharton’s Jelly of the umbilical cord: biological properties and emerging clinical applications.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23279098

  • Thus, there is accumulating interest in identifying alternative sources for MSCs. To this end MSCs obtained from the Wharton’s Jelly (WJ) of umbilical cords (UC) have gained much attention over the last years since they can be easily isolated, without any ethical concerns, from a tissue which is discarded after birth. Furthermore WJ-derived MSCs represent a more primitive population than their adult counterparts, opening new perspectives for cell-based therapies. In this review we will at first give an overview of the biology of WJ-derived UC-MSCs. Then their potential application for the treatment of cancer and immune mediated disorders, such graft versus host disease (GVHD) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) will be discussed, and finally their putative role as feeder layer for ex vivo hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) expansion will be pointed out.

Wharton’s Jelly Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Future of Regenerative Medicine? Recent Findings and Clinical Significance

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/430847/

  • Taken together, the clinical implication of oxidative stress, telomere length, DNA damage and disease is impaired therapeutic potential of MSC isolated from aged patients. These changes in MSC biology indicate that aged patients may require an alternative source of stem cells for treatment. The high efficiency of WJ-MSC recovery, the minimal ethical concerns associated with its acquirement and use, low immunogenicity, and the fact that they are from healthy, young donors make them an ideal source of MSC for autologous and allogeneic applications.

Wharton’s jelly as a reservoir of peptide growth factors.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16226124

  • The amounts of peptide growth factors calculated per microgram of DNA are distinctly higher in Wharton’s jelly in comparison to the umbilical cord artery. Western blot analysis demonstrated that almost the entire amount of these factors is bound to high molecular weight components. Since the number of cells in Wharton’s jelly is very low and the amounts of extracellular matrix components are very high, it is concluded that the cells are strongly stimulated by peptide growth factors to produce large amounts of collagen and glycosaminoglycans.
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